FPC Depaneling Machine – A Couple of Tips For Getting a FPC Depaneling Machine.

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Punching/die cutting. This procedure needs a different die for each and every new circuit board, which happens to be not really a practical solution for small production runs. The action might be PCB Depaneling, but either can leave the board edges somewhat deformed. To lower damage care must be come to maintain sharp die edges.

V-scoring. Usually the panel is scored on sides to your depth of approximately 30% from the board thickness. After assembly the boards might be manually broken out of the panel. This puts bending strain on the boards that could be damaging to some of the components, particularly those near the board edge.

Wheel cutting/pizza cutter. Another technique to manually breaking the world wide web after V-scoring is to try using a “pizza cutter” to slice the other web. This involves careful alignment in between the V-score along with the cutter wheels. Additionally, it induces stresses inside the board which may affect some components.

Sawing. Typically machines that are used to saw boards from a panel utilize a single rotating saw blade that cuts the panel from either the most notable or maybe the bottom.

All these methods is limited to straight line operations, thus simply for rectangular boards, and each one to many degree crushes and cuts the board edge. Other methods are more expansive and may include the following:

Water jet. Some say this technology can be done; however, the authors are finding no actual users of it. Cutting is carried out with a high-speed stream of slurry, which happens to be water with an abrasive. We expect it will require careful cleaning once the fact to remove the abrasive area of the slurry.

Routing ( nibbling). More often than not boards are partially routed ahead of assembly. The other attaching points are drilled by using a small drill size, making it easier to destroy the boards out of your panel after assembly, leaving the so-called mouse bites. A disadvantage might be a significant loss in panel area on the routing space, since the kerf width typically takes up to 1.5 to 3mm (1/16 to 1/8″) plus some additional space for inaccuracies. What this means is lots of panel space will be needed for the routed traces.

Laser routing. Laser routing gives a space advantage, as being the kerf width is just a few micrometers. By way of example, the little boards in FIGURE 2 were initially presented in anticipation the panel could be routed. In this fashion the panel yielded 124 boards. After designing the design for laser depaneling, the volume of boards per panel increased to 368. So for each 368 boards needed, merely one panel must be produced as opposed to three.

Routing could also reduce panel stiffness to the point that the pallet is usually necessary for support during the earlier steps within the assembly process. But unlike the earlier methods, routing will not be limited to cutting straight line paths only.

Many of these methods exert some degree of mechanical stress on the board edges, which can cause delamination or cause space to develop round the glass fibers. This might lead to moisture ingress, which actually can reduce the long-term longevity of the circuitry.

Additionally, when finishing placement of components in the board and after soldering, the very last connections involving the boards and panel have to be removed. Often this really is accomplished by breaking these final bridges, causing some mechanical and bending stress about the boards. Again, such bending stress might be damaging to components placed in close proximity to areas that ought to be broken so that you can take away the board from your panel. It is actually therefore imperative to accept the production methods into consideration during board layout and then for panelization to ensure that certain parts and traces are not placed in areas considered to be susceptible to stress when depaneling.

Room can also be necessary to permit the precision (or lack thereof) with which the tool path may be placed and to consider any non-precision in the board pattern.

Laser cutting. By far the most recently added tool to PCB Routing Machine and rigid boards is a laser. Within the SMT industry several kinds of lasers are employed. CO2 lasers (~10µm wavelength) can provide high power levels and cut through thick steel sheets and in addition through circuit boards. Neodymium:Yag lasers and fiber lasers (~1µm wavelength) typically provide lower power levels at smaller beam sizes. These two laser types produce infrared light and may be called “hot” lasers since they burn or melt the fabric being cut. (As an aside, these are the basic laser types, specially the Nd:Yag lasers, typically utilized to produce stainless steel stencils for solder paste printing.)

UV lasers (typical wavelength ~355nm), alternatively, are widely used to ablate the information. A localized short pulse of high energy enters the top layer of your material being processed and essentially vaporizes and removes this top layer explosively, turning it to dust (FIGURE 3).

Choosing a 355nm laser is founded on the compromise between performance and cost. To ensure that ablation to occur, the laser light needs to be absorbed with the materials to be cut. Within the circuit board industry they are mainly FR-4, glass fibers and copper. When looking at the absorption rates for these particular materials (FIGURE 4), the shorter wavelength lasers are the most suitable ones for that ablation process. However, the laser cost increases very rapidly for models with wavelengths shorter than 355nm.

The laser beam carries a tapered shape, as it is focused from the relatively wide beam for an extremely narrow beam then continuous in a reverse taper to widen again. This small area where beam is in its most narrow is known as the throat. The perfect ablation takes place when the energy density placed on the material is maximized, which occurs when the throat of the beam is simply inside of the material being cut. By repeatedly exceeding the identical cutting track, thin layers of the material is going to be removed before the beam has cut all the way through.

In thicker material it might be needed to adjust the target in the beam, as being the ablation occurs deeper to the kerf being cut in to the material. The ablation process causes some heating in the material but could be optimized to depart no burned or carbonized residue. Because cutting is completed gradually, heating is minimized.

The earliest versions of UV laser systems had enough ability to depanel flex circuit panels. Present machines get more power and could also be used to depanel circuit boards approximately 1.6mm (63 mils) in thickness.

Temperature. The temperature rise in the fabric being cut depends on the beam power, beam speed, focus, laser pulse rate and repetition rate. The repetition rate (how fast the beam returns for the same location) is dependent upon the road length, beam speed and whether a pause is added between passes.

An informed and experienced system operator can pick the optimum mix of settings to make sure a clean cut without any burn marks. There is no straightforward formula to determine machine settings; they are affected by material type, thickness and condition. Depending on the board and its particular application, the operator can choose fast depaneling by permitting some discoloring and even some carbonization, versus a somewhat slower but completely “clean” cut.

Careful testing indicates that under most conditions the temperature rise within 1.5mm from your cutting path is lower than 100°C, way below such a PCB experiences during soldering (FIGURE 6).

Expelled material. From the laser employed for these tests, an airflow goes over the panel being cut and removes most of the expelled dust into an exhaust and filtering system (FIGURE 7).

To check the impact of the remaining expelled material, a slot was cut in the four-up pattern on FR-4 material having a thickness of 800µm (31.5 mils) (FIGURE 8). Only few particles remained and contained powdery epoxy and glass particles. Their size ranged from typically 10µm to your high of 20µm, plus some might have was comprised of burned or carbonized material. Their size and number were extremely small, with out conduction was expected between traces and components on the board. If you have desired, a basic cleaning process could be included with remove any remaining particles. This kind of process could contain the application of just about any wiping using a smooth dry or wet tissue, using compressed air or brushes. You can also use any sort of cleaning liquids or cleaning baths with or without ultrasound, but normally would avoid any sort of additional cleaning process, especially a pricey one.

Surface resistance. After cutting a path over these test boards (Figure 7, slot in the midst of the test pattern), the boards were put through a climate test (40°C, RH=93%, no condensation) for 170 hr., along with the SIR values exceeded 10E11 Ohm, indicating no conductive material is present.

Cutting path location. The laser beam typically utilizes a galvanometer scanner (or galvo scanner) to trace the cutting path in the material spanning a small area, 50x50mm (2×2″). Using such a scanner permits the beam to get moved at a high speed along the cutting path, in the range of approx. 100 to 1000mm/sec. This ensures the beam is incorporated in the same location only a very small amount of time, which minimizes local heating.

A pattern recognition system is employed, which could use fiducials or other panel or board feature to precisely get the location where the cut must be placed. High precision x and y movement systems are used for large movements together with a galvo scanner for local movements.

In these kinds of machines, the cutting tool is definitely the laser beam, and features a diameter of around 20µm. This means the kerf cut from the laser is approximately 20µm wide, along with the laser system can locate that cut within 25µm with regards to either panel or board fiducials or any other board feature. The boards can therefore be put very close together in the panel. For a panel with many small circuit boards, additional boards can therefore be put, creating cost savings.

Since the laser beam can be freely and rapidly moved within both the x and y directions, cutting out irregularly shaped boards is straightforward. This contrasts with a few of the other described methods, which can be confined to straight line cuts. This becomes advantageous with flex boards, which are often very irregularly shaped and sometimes require extremely precise cuts, as an example when conductors are close together or when ZIF connectors must be cut out (FIGURE 10). These connectors require precise cuts on both ends of the connector fingers, as the fingers are perfectly centered between your two cuts.

A prospective problem to take into consideration is definitely the precision from the board images around the panel. The authors have not even found a business standard indicating an expectation for board image precision. The closest they have got come is “as essental to drawing.” This issue may be overcome with the help of greater than three panel fiducials and dividing the cutting operation into smaller sections with their own area fiducials. FIGURE 11 shows in the sample board cut out in Figure 2 that the cutline can be placed precisely and closely round the board, in this instance, near the away from the copper edge ring.

Even when ignoring this potential problem, the minimum space between boards in the panel could be as little as the cutting kerf plus 10 to 30µm, according to the thickness from the panel 13dexopky the program accuracy of 25µm.

In the area covered by the galvo scanner, the beam comes straight down in the middle. Though a sizable collimating lens can be used, toward the sides of the area the beam includes a slight angle. Which means that dependant upon the height of the components near to the cutting path, some shadowing might occur. Because this is completely predictable, the space some components should stay removed from the cutting path may be calculated. Alternatively, the scan area can be reduced to side step this problem.

Stress. As there is no mechanical connection with the panel during cutting, in some instances every one of the FPC Depaneling Machine can be executed after assembly and soldering (Figure 11). This implies the boards become completely separated from the panel in this particular last process step, and there is absolutely no necessity for any bending or pulling around the board. Therefore, no stress is exerted on the board, and components nearby the side of the board are not susceptible to damage.

In our tests stress measurements were performed. During mechanical depaneling a tremendous snap was observed (FIGURES 12 and 13). This too ensures that during earlier process steps, such as paste printing and component placement, the panel can maintain its full rigidity and no pallets will be required.

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Industrial Wire Brushes – If You Want Information in Relation to Twisted Wire Brushes, Check Out this Company Blog.

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Steel wire brushes certainly are a common and essential tool in virtually any metal fabrication shop. These brushes can be used as various applications, including weld cleaning, deburring, rust and oxide removal, surface preparation, and surface finishing.

One reason industrial brush are incredibly widely used is, unlike solid abrasive wheels, steel filaments will not remove base material or change part dimensions. Wire brushes clean surfaces in a similar manner as sandblasting, although rather than particles of sand colliding with the work surface, wire tips speak to the workpiece. The combination of proper-quality, hardened steel wire tips using the energy of high surface speeds enables the brushes to separate surface contaminants from base material.

Steel brushes are versatile, with numerous configurations open to meet the criteria of each and every application. By way of example, brushes with long filaments are conformable and able to follow contoured surfaces, and short trim brushes are fast-acting and designed for severe applications. Another variable is definitely the fill density: Low-density brushes offer good flexibility for surface cleaning operations on irregular surfaces, and-density brushes produce a fast brushing action and long brush life.

Furthermore, steel brushes are nonloading. To put it differently, they actually do not become clogged with particles and debris when used to remove paint and other coatings.

CS Unitec – Metalworking Solutions

Perhaps because wire brushes are this type of familiar item, they are really easy to overlook and frequently receive insufficient attention. However, five tips can help you increase the performance and lifespan of the wire brushes.

1. Make use of the Highest Safe Speed

Power wire brushes, like cutting tools, operate most effectively when the speed and pressure from the operation properly match the needs in the application. In many operations, making use of the highest speed together with the lightest possible pressure will ensure the quickest brushing action and longest brush life.

Increasing brush speed for the highest safe speed improves the face stiffness and brushing action. A fine-wire brush rotating with a high speed often produces the identical results as a coarse-wire brush rotating with a slow speed, nevertheless it generally lasts longer. Therefore, you can expect to reach the lowest production costs by using the finest wire that may do the job.

In the event the brush speed is insufficient, frustrated operators typically apply more pressure (see Figure 1). However, excessive pressure causes overbending in the filaments and also heat buildup, contributing to filament breakage, rapid dulling, and reduced brush life.

Instead of applying greater pressure, try using a brush with more aggressive action, including one having a larger filament diameter or a shorter filament trim length, or one by using a knot type as an alternative to crimped wire. Or try increasing brush surface speed by increasing rotations each and every minute (RPM) or brush diameter.

You’ll need to determine the correct operating speed for each and every application. For safety, it is actually imperative never to exceed the most safe free speed (MSFS) or RPM rating that the manufacturer publishes for each kind of brush.

Filament breakage

Figure 1Excessive pressure causes over bending of the filaments, causing filament breakage, rapid dulling, and reduced brush life.

2. Periodically Reverse Direction

To enhance the performance and extend the life of wire wheel brushes without nuts, like the brushes commonly used with a bench grinder, listed here is a easy and quick tip: Periodically turn back the direction of rotation to take advantage of the self-sharpening action that can result (see Figure 2).

To turn back the direction of rotation, simply remove the brush through the spindle, flip the wire brush 180 degrees, and remount the brush securely.

3. Know Which Type of Wire to make use of

Crimped-wire brushes are general-purpose brushes that can be used for an array of applications. They are made from hard-drawn wire that is crimped to enable individual filaments to support one another. Crimped-wire brushes provide flexibility for light- to medium-duty brushing action, and they should be suited for parts that may be damaged with the impact of a knot brush.

Knot-wire brushes (see Figure 3) are made from heat-treated straight wire filaments twisted as a single unit resembling a bit of cable or wire rope. They provide less flexibility and more aggressive brushing action than crimped brushes in heavy-duty applications on parts that need high-impact action. Knot-wire brushes frequently are utilized in welding applications and also to remove large burrs and heavy contamination, for example multiple layers of rust, scale, paint, or oxides.

4. Keep Stainless Steel Brushes Clean

Stainless brushes often are being used on stainless and aluminum as well as other nonferrous metals to eliminate the danger of “after-rust” appearing in the work surface. By simply following easy practices, you can maximize the effectiveness of these power tools.

After you make use of a stainless steel brush on carbon steel, will not use it on stainless-steel because after-rust can take place. To prevent contamination, store all stainless brushes from locations where carbon steel particles might come in contact with the brushes, for example steel workbenches.

Unlike a common misconception, a stainless steel brush wire is magnetic. Consequently, some time-tested practice of making use of a magnet to check on whether steel is stainless or carbon fails to work towards brushes. The drawing process, which is used to make brush wire, causes the material to get interested in a magnet. The impact of the drawing process may be eliminated by heating the wire by using a match until it becomes red-hot. In the event the wire is Type 302 stainless, it will not be attracted to a magnet after heating.

For critical operations, degrease stainless-steel wire brushes prior to starting the operation. If you’ll be storing the brushes after use, degrease them and wrap them in plastic. In the event you store the brushes without protection for virtually any length of time, their magnetic properties can cause the brushes to collect foreign matter, leaving after-rust when reused.

5. Use Heat-treated, 47dexqpky Steel Wire

Although stainless steel has the main advantage of eliminating after-rust, carbon steel is superior from the critical attributes of cutting action and fatigue resistance. When buying carbon steel brushes for industrial applications, it is very important buy ones that contain filaments created from high-quality material. Search for heat-treated, oil-tempered or heat-treated, high-tensile steel, especially in wire diameters of .008 inch and greater.

You can get twisted wire brush from your neighborhood hardware store or do-it-yourself retailer, but in the long run, you could possibly turn out spending more due to reduced productivity, more changeover time, and brush replacement costs. As an example, a $5 brush might last 1 hour, whereas a $10 brush will most likely last more than a day.

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Price Of Silicon Nitride Powder – Check Out the In-Depth Review Relating to Price Of Silicon Nitride Powders.

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For twenty five years, Tekna has become developing and commercializing both equipment and procedures depending on its induction plasma proprietary technology. Our induction plasma technology is extremely well adapted to the production of advanced materials as well as the powders required for new innovative emerging products and manufacturing technologies.

Tekna supplies full-scale productions of a variety of Nano powders and micron-sized spherical powders meeting each of the requirements of the more demanding industries. Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNT) represent the fresh new family of materials at Tekna.

AC: Would you summarize to the readers the details in the press release you published earlier this season (May 2015) which announced collaboration together with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC)?

JP: The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) developed, on the Tekna plasma system, an operation to make boron nitride powder). BNNTs really are a material using the potential to produce a big turning point available in the market. Since last spring, Tekna has been doing an exclusive 20-year agreement using the NRC to enable the firm to manufacture Boron Nitride Nanotubes at full-scale production.

BNNTs are an extraordinary material with unique properties that may revolutionise engineered materials across an array of applications including from the defence and security, aerospace, biomedical and automotive sectors. BNNTs use a structure very similar to the more effective known carbon nanotubes. They share the extraordinary mechanical properties of Carbon Nanotubes but have many different advantages.

AC: How can the dwelling and properties of BNNTs are different from Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)?

JP: The dwelling of Ni-Ti Powder is really a close analog of your Carbon Nanotubes (CNT). Both CNTs and BNNTs are considered since the strongest light-weight nanomaterials and are really good thermal conductors.

Although, compared to CNTs, BNNTs have a greater thermal stability, a much better effectiveness against oxidation plus a wider band gap (~5.5 eV). As a result them the best candidate for many fields where CNTs are now utilized for deficiency of a much better alternative. I expect BNNTs for use in transparent bulk composites, high-temperature materials (including metal matrix composites) and radiation shielding.

Comparison in between the main properties of BNNTs and CNTs (Source: NRC)

AC: Which are the main application areas where BNNTs may be used?

JP: The applications involving BNNTs are still in their beginning, essentially because of the limited availability of this material until 2015. Together with the arrival in the marketplace of large supplies of BNNT from Tekna, the scientific community will be able to undertake more in-depth studies of your unique properties of BNNTs which will accelerate the development of new applications.

Many applications can be envisioned for Tekna’s BNNT powder as it is a multifunctional and high quality material. I can tell you that, currently, the combination of high stiffness and high transparency is now being exploited in the development of BNNT-reinforced glass composites.

Also, the top stiffness of BNNT, as well as its excellent chemical stability, will make this product an ideal reinforcement in polymers, ceramics and metals.

Besides, many applications where heat dissipation is crucial are desperately in need of materials with a good thermal conductivity. Tekna’s BNNTs are the most useful allies to enhance not only the thermal conductivity but additionally maintaining a precise colour, if necessary, because of their high transparency.

Other intrinsic properties of BNNTs may very well promote interest to the integration of BNNTs into new applications. BNNTs have a good radiation shielding ability, a really high electrical resistance and an excellent piezoelectricity.

AC: How does Tekna’s BNNT synthesis process are different from methods utilized by other companies?

JP: BNNTs were first synthesized in 1995. Consequently, a few other processes have already been explored for example the arc-jet plasma method, ball milling-annealing, laser ablation pyrolysis and chemical vapour deposition.

Unfortunately, these processes share an important limitation: their low yield. Such methods create a low BNNT production which is typically less than 1 gram each hour. This fault is sometimes in conjunction with the lack of ability to make small diameters.

As a result, the availability of large quantities of high quality BNNTs for applications development using these processes is still a significant challenge.

Fortunately, Tekna’s inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technology has successfully overcome this challenge. The combination of Tekna’s ICP expertise and its partnership with the NRC opened the door to a brand new range of systems capable of producing highly pure BNNTs in significant quantities. Tekna’s system productivity reaches up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than any of the current methods.

AC: What are the advantages of using Tekna’s unique approach in terms of quantity and price for the commercial market?

JP: The productivity and cost efficiency of Tekna’s ICP technology allow for the first time, the supply of kilograms of Boron Nitride Nanotubes, produced at a much lower production cost.

AC: Could you outline the composition of the BNNTs Tekna synthesizes?

JP: The main interesting characteristics include the tube diameter, about 5 nm, and purity (> 50 %). Most nanotubes contain 3 to 5 walls and they are assembled in bundles of some Silicon nitride sintered powder.

AC: How would you start to see the BNNT industry progressing on the next 5yrs?

JP: As large volumes are now available, we saw the launch of countless R&D programs based upon Tekna’s BNNT, and also as greater quantities will probably be reached within the next five years, we can only imagine precisely what the impact could possibly be in the sciences and industry fields.

AC: Where can our readers discover more information regarding Tekna as well as your BNNTs?

JP: You can get information about Tekna and BNNT on Tekna’s website as well as on our BNNT-dedicated page.

Jérôme Pollak came into this world in Grenoble, France in 1979. He received the B.Sc. degree in physics from your Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble. He relocated to Québec (Canada) in 2002 to get results for the company Air Liquide in the design of plasma sources for your detoxification of greenhouse gases.

He continued his studies in Montreal, where he received an M.Sc. after which a Ph.D. degree in plasma physics from the Université de Montréal in 2008. His M.Sc. thesis was 21dexqpky the style and modelling of field applicators to sustain plasma with RF and microwave fields. While his Ph.D. thesis concerned the plasma sterilization of thermosensitive medical devices like catheters. He was further in the characterization and modelling of cold plasma effects on microorganisms and polymers.

After his Ph.D., he worked for three years for Morgan Schaffer in Montreal on the creation of gas chromatographic systems using plasma detectors.

Since 2010, they have worked at Tekna Plasma Systems in Sherbrooke (QC, Canada) being an R&D coordinator, then as product and service manager and today as business development director for America. He has been in control of various R&D projects and business development activities implying micro-sized powder treatment and nanoparticle synthesis by high temperature plasma.

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Here for this article I provides you with many ways and assistance with some common uses of recessed, pendant and soft diffuse lights. A good lighting layout will help setting up the right atmosphere and give you enough clarity so you may fully enjoy your preferred movie inside your living room area or cook dinner with the cooking.

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